3D Studio Max


Joan of Arc

Hierarchy & Skeleton

Email: Michel Roger --- Web: mr2k.3dvf.com


Here we make of Character Setup for an animation for example but simply to create a skeleton with a hierarchy.

To be able to give installations to Joan. Not opposite and different kinematics but just an animal skeleton in direct kinematics.

Before starting, change the view of the viewport to wire frame, go into Customize/Viewport Configuration.
This accelerates the refresh rate largely.


Before designing the skeleton, name all the objects of the character. The nomenclature hardly has importance, but it is easier to find parts of our our object later, this is practical and logical.
Single objects in top of list and the symmetrical ones with the prefix D or G in front.

The character comprises rigid parts of armour and of the flexible parts of clothing, the skirt, the hair or the face (neck).
The rigid objects will be simply connected to the corresponding bones by a simple bond and the remainder will be the subject of skinning.

Hide the accessories for the moment and leaving only the body viewable.

Go in the panel Create/Systems then Bones.
Chose History Dependent.


Build the chains of bones for the leg, as shown in this example.
Change the size of the bone in Modify (Width and Height) to adapt it to the model then finely adjust the position of the articulation in the Hierarchy panel after having activated Don't Affect Children.
Finish by adjusting the rotation the bones in local mode

(see Bones bases )

Finally erase the last bone which was used only for the adjustment.

Name the bones, here the nomenclature is B for bone, D or G for the with dimensions we followed by the anatomical name.

Select the chain of bones and in the Front View make a Mirror Copy according to X, activate Mirror Bones to make a symmetrical copy local axes of those.


With the tower of the spinal column. Select the bones, activate Bone in the type of selection object.
As previously adjust the articulations.
Name the bones.

Chains of bones of the arm. Note that before arms two bones receives, to allow the movements of pronation and specific supination to this part of the skeleton.
Name the bones and make them symmetrical.

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