The eye is composed of two spheres, one slightly larger than the other. The little sphere contains the iris and the pupil, and the larger sphere contains the cornea. The first sphere contains the white area of the eye, together with those veins, and of course the pupil, which gives the color of the eye. Those things are of course textures. And I forgot to mention that little light in the eye, the light which gives life to a digital character. That little light was created using a HDRI map. I will explain that later.
I attached here pictures which help you to understand the process of eye creation.
These are the steps that I followed:
I created the green sphere. This will be the eye body (the iris), I mean that part of the eye which contains the veins and the area with blood.
I made a copy of this sphere (Edit -> Clone) and let it down for the moment (you can hide it). That's the blue sphere. This will be the cornea (or the larger sphere, I said there will be two spheres one little - the green one- and one slightly larger -this is the blue one-).
I cropped a portion of the green sphere (convert the sphere to polygonal object, select some polygons and detach them). This will represent the pupil area.
I mirrored it.
I approached the yellow part to the green sphere and then attached to it.
I welded the vertices by pairs.
I have scaled the blue sphere to about 102% and then put it all together. Now, the eye model is completed. About the second sphere (the larger one), I did it transparent (opacity 10) and with a high specular level. These are not standard settings. For your eye, you should try different values and settings until you are satisfied with the result.
And another picture where you can see the eye model result: the two sphere (I represented them with yellow and blue) putted together.
Of course, it is import to study the eye anatomy, to know it as good as possible, and I mean not only the eye ball, but also the eye lids, and the general shape of the eye. I did this reading an anatomy chapter about the eyes and watching other people eyes. (of course, the Internet is full of pictures with beautiful eyes).
About the eyelashes, now... I created the eyelashes using splines with 3 vertices, I smoothed the vertices and I have made the splines with random length. For the thickness of the splines, I tested some values until I was satisfied with the render result. In my case, I used a thickness of 1. After that I have assigned a dark standard material to the eyelashes and made some final modifications. For the upper eyelashes, it's the same thing.
Do not forget to make the splines renderable...
For the beard area, I used shag: hair. I took some polygons from the face and detached them. This way, they formed a new object, which I called beard. These polygons will be the area that will emit the hair. I have modeled these polygons and adjust them until they took a form which satisfied me.
After that, I have created the guide lines for the hair. These splines will control the direction and the orientation of the hair.
These guidelines are in fact splines composed of three control points and having a variable length (the length resulted from some test I have done - in my case, I wanted to make a uniform beard). The spline was converted into editable spline and after that I smoothed the vertices. Then I applied a "model hair" modifier to those splines, and let the settings by default. Then, in the environment panel, in the effects rollout, I added Shag: Hair, and Shag: Render. In the emitters area, I have selected the object "beard" (those polygons that I have detached from the head), and in the model hairs I have selected the two splines which I constructed earlier (the guidelines).
The settings I used for the hair are presented below. These are settings which resulted from tries. You should try your own settings and see what happens. Do that until you are satisfied with the result. Of course, once hair was added, the render time will grow.
The next steps were: assigning a dark material to the hair, and in the Shag: Render rollout I have clicked on the "Make hair enabled lights button". Then, I have scaled down the polygons which form the beard, until they entered a little in the skin (under the mesh of the head). I did that just for creating the impression that the hair is growing from the mesh of the head. After that I hided the beard area.