"Completing the Human Figure, chapter 7" by Peter Ratner

Modeling the Eyelashes and Eyebrows
The eyelashes and eyebrows are easy to model but take a very long time to place correctly. In essence, each hair is placed in the eyelids and brow of the head. If you have the patience, then it is recommended that you model these. One could use hair generator for the eyelashes and an image map for the eyebrows but these are usually inferior to making actual hair models.
Modeling the Eyelashes Steps
Fig. 7-19 Eyelashes Step 1. A single eyelash is made from a long divided three-sided pyramid and then bent. It is shown here in both low polygon and subdivision modes.

Step 1 (Figure 7-19). Create a long 3-sided box with the points on one end welded together. Bend the object so that the tip is on top. Duplicate the eyelash several times and shape them into a variety of sizes.

Step 2 (Figure 7-20). Refer to closeup photos of people’s eyes as you place each eyelash into the upper and lower eyelids. Although this process may seem tedious and too time consuming, if it is done right it will be worth it. Rotate the eyelashes so that you have variety. Some will bunch up and overlap while others at the corners are more sparse. When you finish the upper and lower eyelashes, mirror duplicate them for the other side of the face.
Fig. 7-20 Step 2. Placing eyelashes one at a time. Mirror duplicating the upper and lower eyelashes.
Modeling the Eyebrows
Fig. 7-21 The eyebrows after placing individual strands. Only the ends of the hairs should penetrate the head.
Figure 7-21 illustrates a pair of eyebrows modeled from individual strands. You can use the eyelash objects to make the eyebrows. Make these longer, straighten them a little and then bend them sideways slightly. Refer to closeup photos of eyebrows as you place each hair on the brows. Placing single hairs like this could take several hours or more so have patience.
Texturing the Human
Fig. 7-22 The face before and after adding textures.
Texturing or surfacing techniques will be covered in more detail in Chapter 10. Since we are in the process of finalizing the human, it is more appropriate to discuss texturing the model in this chapter. Figure 7-22 depicts two views of the same female, one without and one with textures.
UV Mapping the Face
Imagine an object with grid lines running horizontally and vertically. When one line intersects another there is a point. Let us say that you have a texture that you want to apply to this object. The most accurate way to put on this texture is to draw the same amount of grid lines over it and then place it point by point on the object. The location of the points on the texture correspond to the same ones on the object. This in effect is what UV mapping does. It is the most accurate method for surfacing an object.
Projection techniques for surfacing are limited to the x, y, and z planes. Therefore, they do not work very well for organic type of objects which often have a mesh running at angles to these 3 axes. Since UVs are in effect pinned to the mesh, they conform to the various directions that it takes.
When you create a UV map, it flattens a rounded or angled surface. A picture of this flattened mesh is brought into an image editor. A texture can then be applied accurately to the image of the UV mesh.
A 3D paint program can also be used to make UV maps. The model is painted and the software remembers which pixels were applied to which points on the mesh.

The following instructions show how you can make a UV map for the face. UVs will also be used to texture the iris and eyeball.



Step 1. Assuming that the face of your human is looking toward you in the front view, select all the polygons on the forepart of the face. This would mean from the forehead and a little below the chin and in front of the ears. It should resemble the shape of a mask. Name these polygons “UV Face”.
Step 2. Hide everything else except for the UV Face polygons. Create a new UV texture that is planar on the z axis. In your UV window, you should see the mesh flattened.
Step 3. Make the UV view window as large as possible and perform an image capture or print screen of the flattened UV map.
Step 4. Paste the captured image of the UV mesh into an image editing program and crop around it. If you need to make the image more vis- ible, turn up the contrast and then invert it.
Step 5 (Figure 7-23). Add a transparent layer on top of the captured UV mesh image. You can now paint the different textures of the face over the UV mesh picture or sample from a photograph.
Fig. 7-23 The UV maps seen as layers in an image editing program.
Step 6. Create an overall seamless skin texture. You can do this by sampling an even surface from the color image of the face. Copy the selection and paste it into its own document. Make the image seamless by using a filter such as Offset. Define a pattern with this seamless picture. Make a new layer on top of the color image map of the face. Fill this layer with the skin pattern. You can use this skin surface on the rest of the nude model.
Step 6. Select the outer edge of the color face that is in your 2nd layer. Feather the selection and delete the color image at the edges. Place the over- all skin texture that is in the 3rd layer underneath the 2nd one. You should now see the overall skin blending into the color face at the edges. Blend the skin color into the color face by cloning from it so that the transition between the seamless skin texture to the face is smooth and even.
Step 7. Merge the 2nd and 3rd layers (overall skin and face color).
Step 8 (Figure 7-23). Create a 3rd layer on top of the layer with the UV color map. Fill it with black and lighten parts of the face that will look more shiny. This layer is your UV specular map. Lessen the opacity of this layer so that you can see the UV wireframe layer underneath. You will also have to hide the layer containing the UV color map. Now that you can see the parts of the face in the wireframe face layer start lightening sections such as the forehead, lips, tip of the nose, and front of the chin.
Step 9 (Figure 7-23). Copy the lips from the UV color map layer and paste them in a new layer on top of the UV specular map layer. This will be the UV bump map. Increase the contrast on the lips and make them grayscale. Bump and specular maps do not register as color maps. Increase the visibility of the lip texture so that the bump map has more distinct lines in it. If you want to make other creases on the face then paint other lines in the UV bump map layer.
Step 10 (Figure 7-23). You should now have UV bump map, UV specular map, and UV color map for the face. Copy and paste each of these into their own document and save them. Create another document that is the same size as the other face maps and fill it with the overall skin pattern. Save the seamless skin pattern.
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