"Completing the Human Figure, chapter 7" by Peter Ratner

Fig. 7-12 Step 7. Beveling back and down and mirroring the tongue.
Fig. 7-13 Step 8. Putting all the mouth parts together.
Step 7 (Figure 7-12). Bevel the back of the half tongue again. Shape the tongue so that it curves back and down. Delete the middle polygons along the 0 x axis seam. Use a set value to move the middle seam points to the 0 x axis. Mirror the half tongue and merge the duplicate points along the center seam.
Step 8 (Figure 7-13). Place the teeth, gums, and tongue together. Put them in a layer with the figure in a background layer. Scale the parts to fit the inside of the mouth. You may have to switch layers and adjust the figure’s mouth cavity. Cut and paste the mouth components into the same layer as the figure. Later, when you make morph targets (chapter 11), the teeth and tongue will be moved according to the various mouth poses.
Modeling the Eye Parts
The eye parts are fairly simple objects made from spheres. They resemble the components of human eye which can be viewed in most medical textbooks.
Modeling the Eyeball Steps
Fig. 7-14 Eye Step 1. The eyeball and iris are one connected object.
Step 1 (Figure 7-14). Create a sphere on the axis that has 10 sides and 5 segments. This is a low polygon ball that will become smooth with subdivision surfaces. Slice across the front polygons to create the section that will form the iris. Slice at the end of the iris and delete those polygons so that you have a small hole in the center of the iris. The lens or pupil will be placed behind this hole. Push the points around the hole back a little. Select the iris polygons and name them “iris”. Inverse the selection and name the polygon surfaces “eyeball”.
Fig. 7-15 Step 2. The lens or pupil is a saucer-like disk that sits behind the iris.
Fig. 7-16 Step 3. The cornea covers the front of the eyeball and iris. It can be formed from a half sphere.
Fig. 7-17 Step 4. The caruncula lacrymalis or pink membrane in the corner of the eye. It is modeled from a primitive.
Fig. 7-18 Step 5. All the eye components are put together.


Step 2 (Figure 7-15). Create another simple sphere and flatten it so it looks like a flying saucer. Scale it down to fit behind the lens opening of the iris. Name its surfaces “lens” or “pupil”. It’s color should be black.
Step 3 (Figure 7-16). Create a half sphere that is slightly larger than the eyeball and protrudes in front of the iris. This is the transparent cornea that has a very high gloss.
Step 4 (Figure 7-17). Create the small pink membrane for the inner angle of the eye. It can be made by reshaping a sphere or a divided cube.
Step 5 (Figure 7-18). Place all the eye components together and scale them to the eyesocket. Surfaces for the eye and mouth parts will be assigned at a later part of the chapter. After that, the eye parts will be rotated in the top view so they tilt a little to the side. It is easier to apply textures when the eye is facing forward rather than angled.
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