"Completing the Human Figure, chapter 7" by Peter Ratner

In the previous chapter, the female was modeled except for a few important details. This chapter explains how to finish the nude by showing how to model teeth, gums, a tongue, an eye, eyelashes, eyebrows, and hair. If you have been following the previous chapters to model several different characters, then you should determine that it is fairly easy to complete the model. Although 3D modeling will continue to be a time consuming task, you should find that it is not as challenging as it was in the past.
Modeling the Mouth parts
The mouth consists of the teeth, gums, and tongue. The modeling steps for each part are explained separately.
Modeling the Teeth Steps
Fig. 7-1 The teeth are made up of simple split boxes that have been shaped into a few different configurations. They are shown here in subdivision mode.
Fig. 7-2 A side view of the teeth.
Fig. 7-3 A top view of the bottom teeth.
Fig. 7-4 A bottom view of the upper teeth.
Step 1 (Figures 7-1, 7-2, 7-3, and 7-4). You only need to model half the teeth. Later, these can be mirror duplicated for the half on the opposite side. Start with a simple box and model the front upper tooth by pulling and pushing points. You will most likely have to divide the box at least once.
Step 2 (Figures 7-1, 7-2, 7-3, and 7-4). Duplicate and reshape the first tooth into the second one next to it. Continue modeling the rest of the teeth. The molars are more complicated and thus will need more divisions.
Step 3 (Figures 7-1, 7-2, 7-3, and 7-4). When you finish modeling the upper teeth make sure they are arranged in a horsehoe-shape. Mirror duplicate them to complete the upper teeth.
Step 4 (Figures 7-1, 7-2, 7-3, and 7-4). You can now either mirror duplicate the upper teeth on the vertical axis and reshape them into the lower teeth or start the lower teeth from the beginning with a box.
Modeling the Gums Steps
Fig. 7-5 Gums Step 1. Making a flat box.
Fig. 7-6 Step 2. Beveling down and in a little.
Fig. 7-7 Step 3. Dividing the box into smaller sections.


Fig. 7-8 Step 4. Several views showing the half gum in low poly mode after pulling and pushing the bottom points.
Step 1 (Figure 7-5). In the usual manner start with a box. Make it fairly flat. Only half the upper gum will be modeled and later it will be mirror duplicated.
Step 2 (Figure 7-6). Select the bottom gum polygon and bevel it down a little. It should also be scaled down.
Step 3 (Figure 7-7). Split the gum polygon into smaller sections for sculpting.
Step 4 (Figure 7-8). Refer to the different views in the illustration and shape the half gum. Place it over the upper teeth and scale it to fit over half the dentures. Pull/push points on the bottom so the gum fits between the teeth.
Fig. 7-9 Step 5. Refining the half gum in subdivision mode.
Fig. 7-10 Step 6. Mirror duplicating the half gum after deleting the middle polygons at the 0 x axis.
Step 5 (Figure 7-9). Adjust the final half gum shape in subdivision mode.
Step 6 (Figure 7-10). Select the middle polygons at the 0 x axis and delete them. Mirror duplicating would cause them to become inside polygons that pull on the outside ones. Use a set value to move the middle seam points to the 0 x axis. Mirror the half gum and merge points in the center. You can use the completed upper gum to model the lower one or start from the beginning with a flat box and repeat the previous steps.
Modeling the Tongue Steps
Fig. 7-11 Tongue Steps 1-6. 1). Making a box. 2). Beveling out to the side. 3). Beveling to the side again. 4). Beveling back. 5). Beveling back again. 6). Beveling once more.
Step 1 (Figure 7-11). The half tongue will be modeled and then later mirrored. Make a box.
Step 2 (Figure 7-11). Bevel one side back at an angle and make it smaller.
Step 3 (Figure 7-11). Bevel the side back again.
Step 4 (Figure 7-11). Merge the 3 polygons at the rear and bevel them toward the back.
Step 5 (Figure 7-11). Bevel the rear polygon back once again.
Step 6 (Figure 7-11). Bevel back once more.
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